The list shows the most common tire markings. They are located on the side walls of tires.
e.g. 235/50 R18 101V
235 – tire width expressed in millimeters.
50 – value expressed as a percentage, means the ratio of the height of the tire’s side to the width of the tread. In this case, the value “50” means 50 percent from 195 mm, or 117.5 mm.
R18 – the diameter of the seat, which is also the diameter of the rim, given in inches.
101V – load index with a value of 101 and a class V speed index.
For example, tire markings can be given in two systems:
215 65 R 16
LONG TRAIL T / A TOUR
215 = Tire width in mm
65 = Tire profile (ratio of height to section width H / S)
R = Radial construction
16 = Diameter of embedment in inches
Load capacity and speed index
in the American inch system
31 X 10.50 R15
LT / C
ALL TERRAIN T / A KO
31 = Outer diameter in inches
10.50 = Width of tire in inches
R = Radial construction
15 = Inner diameter in inches
Load capacity and speed index
Other markings on tires:
BasePen – the tire is equipped with electrostatic grounding by placing a silica mixture in the middle groove of the tire, which discharges static electricity.
BLT – the tire has black and convex letters on the side of the tire, it is an abbreviation for Raised Black Letters.
BSW – the tire has black inscriptions on the side, it is an abbreviation for Black Sidewall.
COLD – a reminder that tire pressure should be measured with cold wheels.
DOT – short for Department of Transport. It means that the tire can be sold in the US because it meets the safety requirements of the United States Department of Transportation. Behind the DOT symbol appears a sequence of a dozen or so characters, which is a coded information about the factory that produced the tire, about the entire production batch of tires, as well as the date of tire production – the last 4 digits, e.g. 1216, mean 12 weeks 2016.
DSST- designation of Run Flat tires, used on Dunlop tires.
ECE, e, E – Abbreviation indicating that the tire is approved for use on the territory of the European Union.
EMT – the abbreviation used on Goodyear tires, means tires with run-flat technology.
FP- Fringe Protector – or RFP (Rim Fringe Protector) tire with rim protection. Dunlop uses the MFS symbol.
FR- means a tire with a protective rim on the rim. The markings are also: FR, RFP or MFS. A tire with a protective edge is most often found in low-profile tires with a profile 55 or lower, where the risk of rim damage is greater.
G1- symbolizes the tire pressure monitoring sensor.
INSIDE- occurs on asymmetric tires. He talks about how to assemble a given tire. INSIDE means that this side of the tire should be mounted towards the car, it should not be visible from the side of the vehicle.
JLB- this is an abbreviation of the Jointless Band, describes the endless nylon belt.
LI – short for Load Index. Indicates the maximum load capacity, the tire capacity, expressed in LI, which has its equivalents in kilograms.
LT- is mainly used in the United States. Specifies the purpose of the tires: for light truck type vehicles – Light Truck. It is located before the size of the tire.
MAX maximum, the maximum pressure in the tire.
M + S – comes from the English Mud and Snow (mud and snow). It is placed on winter and all-season tires.
OWL – informs that the tire has white letters – Outlined White Leterring.
OUTSIDE – the sign informing that the tire should be mounted outside the vehicle is visible from the outside is placed on asymmetric tires. It informs about the method of tire assembly. The side of the tire with this symbol should be mounted outside the car, so that the side is visible.
P Symbol used on tires in the United States. It informs that a given tire is intended for passenger cars.
PAX – informs that the tire is equipped with a zero pressure system. Used on Michelin tires.
PSP-Beta- informs that the tire has a noise reduction system.
R – determines the type of tire: radial
RBL – informs that the tire has black, concave letters on the side – Recessed Black Lettering.
RETREAD- determines that the tire has been retreaded.
RF- informs that the tire has a reinforced structure, increased load capacity, sometimes referred to as a reinforced tire – Reinforced, XL.
RFT – short for Run Flat Tires, it defines a Run Flat tire that allows driving after a breakdown. Used in Bridgestone, Firestone, Pirelli.
RIM PROTECTOR – informs that the tire has a rim to protect the rim from damage.
ROF – short for Run On Flat, means a tire that allows further driving even after losing pressure due to a puncture. Used by Goodyear and Dunlop.
ROTATION- determines the direction of rolling of the tire, it is assembly information.
RSC- is found on Run Flat tires manufactured by Bridgestone. It is short for Run Flat System Component.
RWL Raised White Lettering – convex letters in white. It shows that on the tire there are white, raised letters – Raised White Lettering.
SST- informs that the tire has a Self Supporting Technology system that allows driving after the puncture of the tire, with zero pressure.
SI- informs about the maximum permissible speed at which a given tire can be used – Speed Index.
TL- informs about tubeless Tire construction.
TT- informs about tubular construction of the tire – Tubed Type Tire.
ULW- occurs on Dunlop tires. Informs about the use of the construction, which reduces the weight of the tire.
The XL- tire has a raised load capacity, through the use of a reinforced internal tire structure. XL- Xtra Load.
ZP- determines the Run Flat tire, which allows you to continue driving after losing pressure.
Opony terenowe – rodzaje:
Opony MT nadają się do jazdy po normalnych drogach.
- przyzwoite prowadzenie na asfalcie (ale należy pamiętać że to opona terenowa),
- dobrze radzą sobie w błocie,
- dobrze radzą także w śniegu,
- większy hałas i spalanie,
- gorsze prowadzenie
Są to najbardziej uniwersalne opony terenowe gdzie warto zastanowić się nad wyborem tego rodzaju opony.
Opony All Terrain. AT
Są one zbliżone bardzo do opisywanych wyżej MT z tą różnicą że zazwyczaj mają mniejszy bieżnik.
- dobrze radzą na suchym i mokrym asfalcie,
- źle radzą sobie w błocie,
- w miarę przyzwoicie radzą sobie w śniegu,
- mniejszy hałas i spalanie w porównaniu do MT
To opony nadające się tylko do jazdy w terenie.
- duże rozmiary (problem z wyważaniem),
- bardzo dobrze radzą sobie z błotem i śniegiem (należy pamiętać że nie są to zimówki),
- źle radzą sobie z piachem,
- złe prowadzenie na mokrej nawierzchni,
- szybko zużywają się na suchym asfalcie,
- wysoki poziom hałasu i spalanie auta